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A

Artery

A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

Atherosclerosis

Deposition of lipids and plaque formation in arteries, leading to hardening and decrease in size of arterial lumen

Autonomic nerve

A nerve with involuntary neural function, such as vasodilation

B

Body

The main segment of the penis. It contains the erectile tissues that fill up with blood during sexual excitement

Blue vision

Distortion of color perception that results in increased blue color

C

cGMP

Abbreviation for cyclic guanosine monophosphate. A compound that promotes vascular smooth muscle relaxation

Corpus cavernosum

Spongy erectile tissue of the penis

Corpus spongiosum

Midventral mass of erectile tissue that encloses the penile portion of the urethra

Creatinine

A compound that is present in the blood, urine, and skeletal muscle

cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP)

A substance whose formation is catalyzed by nitric oxide during sexual stimulation; cGMP causes smooth muscle relaxation that allows blood to flow into the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum) of the penis

D

Diabetes mellitus

Disease caused by insulin deficiency or diminished tissue response to insulin

E

Erection

A penile condition characterized by enlargement and filling of erectile tissue with blood

Erectile bodies

Erectile tissue of the penis to become erect by filling with blood

Erectile dysfunction (ED)

The inability to attain or maintain an erection satisfactory to complete intercourse

F

Flaccid

Referring to the non-erect, flabby state of the penis when a man is not sexually aroused.

G

Glans penis

The distal end of the penis where the corpus spongiosum enlarges to form an acorn-shaped region H

Hyperlipidemia

Abnormally high levels of lipids in the blood

Hypertension

High blood pressure L

Libido

Sexual drive M

Multiple sclerosis

A debilitating disease affecting nerve cells N

Neurogenic

Originating in the nervous system

Neurotransmitter

A chemical messenger used by nerve cells to transmit nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another

Nitric Oxide

A substance that mediates vascular smooth muscle relaxation P

Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5)

Enzyme that breaks down cGMP during an erection, ultimately returning the penis to a flaccid state

Prostate gland

An accessory reproductive gland, located under the urinary bladder and responsible for the secretion of a milky fluid that is important for the production and viability of sperm

Priapism

Persistent abnormal and painful erection of the penis

Peyronie’s disease

A condition of unknown etiology in which there is a structural deformity of the erectile tissue of the penis

Psychogenic

Psychological S

Sensory

Relating to afferent nerves that transmit signals to the central nervous system so that an organism has perception of self and the environment

Smooth muscle

A type of involuntary muscle T

Testis

The male sexual organ that is responsible for the production of reproductive cells (sperm) and testosterone, the principal male sex hormone. (Plural = testes)

Testosterone

The primary male sex hormone. It is produced by the testes, and its main function is mediating the development, growth, and maturation of the male sex organs V

Vasodilator

An agent that causes dilation of blood vessels

Vein

A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart

Venous plexus

A vascular network formed by numerous connections between veins  

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